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GERD (Acid Reflux, Heartburn)

Acid Reflux During The Flu Soothe The Pain (🔴 Holiday) | Acid Reflux During The Flu Tipshow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for GERD (acid reflux) facts

  • GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is a condition in which the acidified liquid content of the stomach backs up into the esophagus.
  • The cause of GERD is complex and may involve multiple causes.
  • GERD may damage the lining of the esophagus, thereby causing inflammation (esophagitis), although this is uncommon.
  • The symptoms of uncomplicated GERD include:
  • Complications of GERD include:

What is GERD or acid the 1 last update 2020/03/29 reflux?

What is GERD or acid reflux?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, commonly referred to as GERD or acid reflux, is a condition in which the liquid content of the stomach regurgitates (backs up or refluxes) into the esophagus. The liquid can inflame and damage the lining (esophagitis) although visible signs of inflammation occur in a minority of patients. The regurgitated liquid usually contains acid and pepsin that are produced by the stomach. (Pepsin is an enzyme that begins the digestion of proteins in the stomach.) The refluxed liquid also may contain bile that has backed-up into the stomach from the duodenum. The first part of the small intestine attached to the stomach. Acid is believed to be the most injurious component of the refluxed liquid. Pepsin and bile also may injure the esophagus, but their role in the production of esophageal inflammation and damage is not as clear as the role of acid.

GERD is a chronic condition. Once it begins, it usually is life-long. If there is injury to the lining of the esophagus (esophagitis), this also is a chronic condition. Moreover, after the esophagus has healed with treatment and treatment is stopped, the injury will return in most patients within a few months. Once treatment for GERD is begun it will need to be continued indefinitely although. However, some patients with intermittent symptoms and no esophagitis can be treated only during symptomatic periods.

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    Acid Reflux During The Flu Acid Reflux Symptoms (🔥 Best Home Remedies) | Acid Reflux During The Flu Stops Acid Refluxhow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for What are the symptoms of uncomplicated GERD?

    The symptoms of uncomplicated GERD are primarily:

    Acid Reflux During The Flu What Is The Best (👍 The Discomfort) | Acid Reflux During The Flu Cure Your Acid Refluxhow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for Other symptoms occur when there are complications of GERD and will be discussed with the complications.

    Acid Reflux During The Flu Tips (☑ Chronic Heartburn) | Acid Reflux During The Flu 7 Home Remedieshow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for Heartburn

    When acid refluxes back into the esophagus in patients with GERD, nerve fibers in the esophagus are stimulated. This nerve stimulation results most commonly in heartburn, the pain that is characteristic of GERD. Heartburn usually is described as a burning pain in the middle of the chest. It may start high in the abdomen or may extend up into the neck. In some patients, however, the pain may be sharp or pressure-like, rather than burning. Such pain can mimic heart pain (angina). In other patients, the pain may extend to the back.

    Since acid reflux is more common after meals, heartburn is more common after meals. Heartburn is also more common when individuals lie down because without the effects of gravity, reflux occurs more easily, and acid is returned to the stomach more slowly. Many patients with GERD are awakened from sleep by heartburn.

    Episodes of heartburn tend to happen periodically. This means that the episodes are more frequent or severe for a period of several weeks or months, and then become less frequent or severe or even absent for several weeks or months. This periodicity of symptoms provides the rationale for intermittent treatment in patients with GERD who do not have esophagitis. Nevertheless, heartburn is a life-long problem, and it almost always returns.

    Regurgitation

    Regurgitation is the appearance of refluxed liquid in the mouth. In most patients with GERD, usually only small quantities of liquid reach the esophagus, and the liquid remains in the lower esophagus. Occasionally in some patients with GERD, larger quantities of liquid, sometimes containing food, are refluxed and reach the upper esophagus.

    At the upper end of the esophagus is the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). The UES is a circular ring of muscle that is very similar in its actions to the LES. That is, the UES prevents esophageal contents from backing up into the throat. When small amounts of refluxed liquid and/or foods get for 1 last update 2020/03/29 past the UES and enter the throat, there may be an acid taste in the mouth. If larger quantities breach the UES, patients may suddenly find their mouths filled with the liquid or food. What''s esophagusAt the upper end of the esophagus is the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). The UES is a circular ring of muscle that is very similar in its actions to the LES. That is, the UES prevents esophageal contents from backing up into the throat. When small amounts of refluxed liquid and/or foods get past the UES and enter the throat, there may be an acid taste in the mouth. If larger quantities breach the UES, patients may suddenly find their mouths filled with the liquid or food. What''s esophagus

    Long-standing and/or severe GERD causes changes in the cells that line the esophagus in some patients. These cells are pre-cancerous and may, though usually, become cancerous. This condition is referred to as Barrett''s esophagus (adenocarcinoma) is increasing in frequency. It is not clear why some patients with GERD develop Barrett''s esophagus can be recognized visually at the time of an endoscopy and confirmed by microscopic examination of the lining cells. Then, patients with Barrett''s esophagus should receive maximum treatment for GERD to prevent further damage to the esophagus. Procedures are being studied that remove the abnormal lining cells. Several endoscopic, non-surgical techniques can be used to remove the cells. These techniques are attractive because they do not require surgery; however, there are associated with complications, and the long-term effectiveness of the treatments has not yet been determined. Surgical removal of the esophagus is always an option.

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    Many nerves are in the lower esophagus. Some of these nerves are stimulated by the refluxed acid, and this stimulation results in pain (usually heartburn). Other nerves that are stimulated do not produce pain. Instead, they stimulate yet other nerves that provoke coughing. In this way, refluxed liquid can cause coughing without ever reaching the throat! In a similar manner, reflux into the lower esophagus can stimulate esophageal nerves that connect to and can stimulate nerves going to the lungs. These nerves to the lungs then can cause the smaller breathing tubes to narrow, resulting in an attack of asthma.

    Although GERD may cause cough, it is not a common cause of unexplained coughing. Although GERD also may be a cause of asthma, it is more likely that it precipitates asthmatic attacks in patients who already have asthma. Although chronic cough and asthma are common ailments, it is not clear just how often they are aggravated or caused by GERD.

    Inflammation of the throat and larynx

    If refluxed liquid gets past the upper esophageal sphincter, it can enter the throat (pharynx) and even the voice box (larynx). The resulting inflammation can lead to a sore throat and hoarseness. As with coughing and asthma, it is not clear just how commonly GERD is responsible for otherwise unexplained inflammation of the throat and larynx.

    Inflammation and infection of the lungs

    Acid Reflux During The Flu Home Remedies For (👍 Why) | Acid Reflux During The Flu GERD Diethow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for Refluxed liquid that passes from the throat (pharynx) and into the larynx can enter the lungs (aspiration). The reflux of liquid into the lungs (called aspiration) often results in coughing and choking. Aspiration, however, also can occur without producing these symptoms. With or without these symptoms, aspiration may lead to infection of the lungs and result in pneumonia. This type of pneumonia is a serious problem requiring immediate treatment. When aspiration is unaccompanied by symptoms, it can result in a slow, progressive scarring of the lungs (pulmonary fibrosis) that can be seen on chest X-rays. Aspiration is more likely to occur at night because that is when the processes (mechanisms) that protect against reflux are not active and the coughing reflex that protects the lungs also is not active.

    Fluid in the sinuses and middle ears

    The throat communicates with the nasal passages. In small children, two patches of lymph tissue, called the adenoids, are located where the upper part of the throat joins the nasal passages. The passages from the sinuses and the tubes from the middle ears (Eustachian tubes) open into the rear of the nasal passages near the adenoids. Refluxed liquid that enters the upper throat can inflame the adenoids and cause them to swell. The swollen adenoids then can block the passages from the sinuses and the Eustachian tubes. When the sinuses and middle ears are closed off from the nasal passages by the swelling of the adenoids, fluid accumulates within them. This accumulation of fluid can lead to discomfort in the sinuses and ears. Since the adenoids are prominent in young children, and not in adults, this fluid accumulation in the ears and sinuses is seen in children and not adults.

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    Endoscopy

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (also known as esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy or EGD) is a common way of diagnosing GERD. EGD is a procedure in which a tube containing an optical system for visualization is swallowed. As the tube progresses down the gastrointestinal tract, the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum can be examined.

    Acid Reflux During The Flu Without Medication (☑ Acidity) | Acid Reflux During The Flu Quick Reliefhow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for The esophagus of most patients with symptoms of reflux looks normal. Therefore, in most patients, endoscopy will not help in the diagnosis of GERD. However, sometimes the lining of the esophagus appears inflamed (esophagitis). Moreover, if erosions (superficial breaks in the esophageal lining) or ulcers (deeper breaks in the lining) are seen, a diagnosis of GERD can be made confidently. Endoscopy will also identify several of the complications of GERD, specifically, ulcers, strictures, and Barrett''s esophagus. More recently, it has been suggested that even in patients with GERD whose esophagi appear normal to the eye, biopsies will show widening of the spaces between the lining cells, possibly an indication of damage. It is too early to conclude, however, that seeing widening is specific enough to be confidently that GERD is present.

    X-rays

    Before the introduction of endoscopy, an X-ray of the esophagus (called an esophagram) was the only means of diagnosing GERD. Patients swallowed barium (contrast material), and X-rays of the barium-filled esophagus were then taken. The problem with the esophagram was that it was an insensitive test for diagnosing GERD. That is, it failed to find signs of GERD in many patients who had GERD because the patients had little or no damage to the lining of the esophagus. The X-rays were able to show only the infrequent complications of GERD, for example, ulcers and strictures. X-rays have been abandoned as a means of diagnosing GERD, although they still can be useful along with endoscopy in the evaluation of complications.

    Examination of the throat and larynx

    When GERD affects the throat or larynx and causes symptoms of cough, hoarseness, or sore throat, patients often visit an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist. The ENT specialist frequently finds signs of inflammation of the throat or larynx. Although diseases of the throat or larynx usually are the cause of the inflammation, sometimes GERD can be the cause. Accordingly, ENT specialists often try acid-suppressing treatment to confirm the diagnosis of GERD. This approach, however, has the same problems as discussed above, that result from using the response to treatment to confirm GERD.

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    GERD (acid reflux) tests

    Esophageal acid testing

    Esophageal acid testing is considered a "gold standard" for diagnosing GERD. As discussed previously, the reflux of acid is common in the general population. However, patients with the symptoms or complications of GERD have reflux of more acid than individuals without the symptoms or complications of GERD. Moreover, normal individuals and patients with GERD can be distinguished moderately well from each other by the amount of time that the esophagus contains acid.

    The amount of time that the esophagus contains acid is determined by a test called a 24-hour esophageal pH test. (pH is a mathematical way of expressing the amount of acidity.) For this test, a small tube (catheter) is passed through the nose and positioned in the esophagus. On the tip of the catheter is a sensor that senses acid. The other end of the catheter exits from the nose, wraps back over the ear, and travels down to the waist, where it is attached to a recorder. Each time acid refluxes back into the esophagus from the stomach, it stimulates the sensor and the recorder records the episode of reflux. After a 20 to 24 hour period of time, the catheter is removed and the record of reflux from the recorder is analyzed.

    There are problems with using pH testing for diagnosing GERD. Despite the fact that normal individuals and patients with GERD can be separated fairly well on the basis of pH studies, the separation is not perfect. Therefore, some patients with GERD will have normal amounts of acid reflux and some patients without GERD will have abnormal amounts of acid reflux. It requires something other than the pH test to confirm the presence of GERD, for example, typical symptoms, response to treatment, or the presence of complications of GERD. GERD also may be confidently diagnosed when episodes of heartburn correlate with acid reflux as shown by acid testing.

    pH testing has uses in the management of GERD other than just diagnosing GERD. For example, the test can help determine why GERD symptoms do not respond to treatment. Perhaps 10 to 20 percent of patients will not have their symptoms substantially improved by treatment for GERD. This lack of response to treatment could be caused by ineffective treatment. This means that the medication is not adequately suppressing the production of acid by the stomach and is not reducing acid reflux. Alternatively, the lack of response can be explained by an incorrect diagnosis of GERD. In both of these situations, the pH test can be very useful. If testing reveals substantial reflux of for 1 last update 2020/03/29 acid while medication is continued, then the treatment is ineffective and will need to be changed. If testing reveals good acid suppression with minimal reflux of acid, the diagnosis of GERD is likely to be wrong and other causes for the symptoms need to be sought.pH testing has uses in the management of GERD other than just diagnosing GERD. For example, the test can help determine why GERD symptoms do not respond to treatment. Perhaps 10 to 20 percent of patients will not have their symptoms substantially improved by treatment for GERD. This lack of response to treatment could be caused by ineffective treatment. This means that the medication is not adequately suppressing the production of acid by the stomach and is not reducing acid reflux. Alternatively, the lack of response can be explained by an incorrect diagnosis of GERD. In both of these situations, the pH test can be very useful. If testing reveals substantial reflux of acid while medication is continued, then the treatment is ineffective and will need to be changed. If testing reveals good acid suppression with minimal reflux of acid, the diagnosis of GERD is likely to be wrong and other causes for the symptoms need to be sought.

    pH testing also can be used to help evaluate whether reflux is the cause of symptoms (usually heartburn). To make this evaluation, while the 24-hour ph testing is being done, patients record each time they have symptoms. Then, when the test is being analyzed, it can be determined whether or not acid reflux occurred at the time of the symptoms. If reflux did occur at the same time as the symptoms, then reflux is likely to be the cause of the symptoms. If there was no reflux at the time of symptoms, then reflux is unlikely to be the cause of the symptoms.

    Lastly, pH testing can be used to evaluate patients prior to endoscopic or surgical treatment for GERD. As discussed above, some 20% of patients will have a decrease in their symptoms even though they don''t have a catheter protruding from their noses) and are more likely to go about their daily activities, for example, go to work, without feeling self-conscious. Because the capsule records for a longer period than the catheter (48 versus 24 hours), more data on acid reflux and symptoms are obtained. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether obtaining additional information is important.

    Capsule pH testing is expensive. Sometimes the capsule does not attach to the esophagus or falls off prematurely. For periods of time the receiver may not receive signals from the capsule, and some of the for 1 last update 2020/03/29 information about reflux of acid may be lost. Occasionally there is pain with swallowing after the capsule has been placed, and the capsule may need to be removed endoscopically. Use of the capsule is an exciting use of new technology although it has its own specific problems.Capsule pH testing is expensive. Sometimes the capsule does not attach to the esophagus or falls off prematurely. For periods of time the receiver may not receive signals from the capsule, and some of the information about reflux of acid may be lost. Occasionally there is pain with swallowing after the capsule has been placed, and the capsule may need to be removed endoscopically. Use of the capsule is an exciting use of new technology although it has its own specific problems.

    Esophageal motility testing

    Esophageal motility testing determines how well the muscles of the esophagus are working. For motility testing, a thin tube (catheter) is passed through a nostril, down the back of the throat, and into the esophagus. On the part of the catheter that is inside the esophagus are sensors that sense pressure. A pressure is generated within the esophagus that is detected by the sensors on the catheter when the muscle of the esophagus contracts. The end of the catheter that protrudes from the nostril is attached to a recorder that records the pressure. During the test, the pressure at rest and the relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter are evaluated. The patient then swallows sips of water to evaluate the contractions of the esophagus.

    Acid Reflux During The Flu To Avoid (☑ Nighttime) | Acid Reflux During The Flu Side Effectshow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for Esophageal motility testing has two important uses in evaluating GERD. The first is in evaluating symptoms that do not respond to treatment for GERD since the abnormal function of the esophageal muscle sometimes causes symptoms that resemble the symptoms of GERD. Motility testing can identify some of these abnormalities and lead to a diagnosis of an esophageal motility disorder. The second use is evaluation prior to surgical or endoscopic treatment for GERD. In this situation, the purpose is to identify patients who also have motility disorders of the esophageal muscle. The reason for this is that in patients with motility disorders, some surgeons will modify the type of surgery they perform for GERD.

    Gastric emptying studies

    Gastric emptying studies are studies that determine how well food empties from the stomach. As discussed above, about 20 % of patients with GERD have slow emptying of the stomach that may be contributing to the reflux of acid. For gastric emptying studies, the patient eats a meal that is labeled with a radioactive substance. A sensor that is similar to a Geiger counter is placed over the stomach to measure how quickly the radioactive substance in the meal empties from the stomach.

    Information from the emptying study can be useful for managing patients with GERD. For example, if a patient with GERD continues to have symptoms despite treatment with the usual medications, doctors might prescribe other medications that speed-up emptying of the stomach. Alternatively, in conjunction with GERD surgery, they might do a surgical procedure that promotes a more rapid emptying of the stomach. Nevertheless, it is still debated whether a finding of reduced gastric emptying should prompt changes in the surgical treatment of GERD.

    Symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and regurgitation may be due either to abnormal gastric emptying or GERD. An evaluation of gastric emptying, therefore, may be useful in identifying patients whose symptoms are due to abnormal emptying of the stomach rather than to GERD.

    Acid perfusion test

    The acid perfusion (Bernstein) test is used to determine if chest pain is caused by acid reflux. For the acid perfusion test, a thin tube is passed through one nostril, down the back of the throat, and into the middle of the esophagus. A dilute, acid solution and a physiologic salt solution (similar to the fluid that bathes the body''s usual pain and perfusion of the salt solution produces no pain, it is likely that the patient''s pain. It does not work well, however, for patients who have infrequent pain, for example every two to three days, which may be missed by a one or two day pH study. In these cases, an acid perfusion test may be reasonable. the 1 last update 2020/03/29

    IMAGES

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    How is GERD (acid reflux) treated?

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    One of the simplest treatments for GERD is referred to as life-style changes, a combination of several changes in habit, particularly related to eating.

    Lifestyle changes and GERD (acid reflux) diet

    Acid Reflux During The Flu Unexpected Foods (🔴 Tests) | Acid Reflux During The Flu How Tohow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for As discussed above, reflux of acid is more injurious at night than during the day. At night, when individuals are lying down, it is easier for reflux to occur. The reason that it is easier is because gravity is not opposing the reflux, as it does in the upright position during the day. In addition, the lack of an effect of gravity allows the refluxed liquid to travel further up the esophagus and remain in the esophagus longer. These problems can be overcome partially by elevating the upper body in bed. The elevation is accomplished either by putting blocks under the bed''s acid-producing cells and stimulates the cells to produce acid. Histamine antagonists work by blocking the receptor for histamine and thereby preventing histamine from stimulating the acid-producing cells. (Histamine antagonists are referred to as H2 antagonists because the specific receptor they block is the histamine type 2 receptor.)

    As histamine is particularly important for the stimulation of acid after meals, H2 antagonists are best taken 30 minutes before meals. The reason for this timing is so that the H2 antagonists will be at peak levels in the body after the meal when the stomach is actively producing acid. H2 antagonists also can be taken at bedtime to suppress nighttime production of acid.

    H2 antagonists are very good for relieving the symptoms of GERD, particularly heartburn. However, they are not very good for healing the inflammation (esophagitis) that may accompany GERD. In fact, they are used primarily for the treatment of heartburn in GERD that is not associated with inflammation or complications, such as erosions or ulcers, strictures, or Barrett''s esophagus exist. Five different PPIs are approved for the treatment of GERD, including omeprazole (Prilosec, Dexilant), lansoprazole (Prevacid), rabeprazole (Aciphex), pantoprazole (Protonix), and esomeprazole (Nexium), and dexlansoprazole (Dexilant). A sixth PPI product consists of a combination of omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid). PPIs (except for Zegarid) are best taken an hour before meals. The reason for this timing is that the PPIs work best when the stomach is most actively producing acid, which occurs after meals. If the PPI is taken before the meal, it is at peak levels in the body after the meal when the acid is being made.

    Pro-motility drugs

    Acid Reflux During The Flu Causes (👍 How To Get Rid) | Acid Reflux During The Flu 7 Home Remedieshow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for Pro-motility drugs work by stimulating the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and/or colon. One pro-motility drug, metoclopramide (Reglan), is approved for GERD. Pro-motility drugs increase the pressure in the lower esophageal sphincter and strengthen the contractions (peristalsis) of the esophagus. Both effects would be expected to reduce reflux of acid. However, these effects on the sphincter and esophagus are small. Therefore, it is believed that the primary effect of metoclopramide may be to speed up emptying of the stomach, which also would be expected to reduce reflux.

    Pro-motility drugs are most effective when taken 30 minutes before meals and again at bedtime. They are not very effective for treating either the symptoms or complications of GERD. Therefore, the pro-motility agents are reserved either for patients who do not respond to other treatments or are added to enhance other treatments for GERD.

    Foam barriers

    Foam barriers provide a unique form of treatment for GERD. Foam barriers are tablets that are composed of an antacid and a foaming agent. As the tablet disintegrates and reaches the stomach, it turns into foam that floats on the top of the liquid contents of the stomach. The foam forms a physical barrier to the reflux of liquid. At the same time, the antacid bound to the foam neutralizes acid that comes into contact with the foam. The tablets are best taken after meals (when the stomach is distended) and when lying down, both times when reflux is more likely to occur. Foam barriers are not often used as the first or only treatment for GERD. Rather, they are added to other drugs for GERD when the other drugs are not adequately effective in relieving symptoms. There is only one foam barrier, which is a combination of aluminum hydroxide gel, magnesium trisilicate, and alginate (Gaviscon).

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    The drugs described above usually are effective in treating the symptoms and complications of GERD. Nevertheless, sometimes they are not. For example, despite adequate suppression of acid and relief from heartburn, regurgitation, with its potential for complications in the lungs, may still occur. Moreover, the amounts and/or numbers of drugs that are required for satisfactory treatment are sometimes so great that drug treatment is unreasonable. In such situations, surgery can effectively stop reflux.

    The surgical procedure that is done to prevent reflux is technically known as fundoplication and for 1 last update 2020/03/29 is called reflux surgery or anti-reflux surgery. During fundoplication, any hiatal hernial sac is pulled below the diaphragm and stitched there. In addition, the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes is tightened around the esophagus. Finally, the upper part of the stomach next to the opening of the esophagus into the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophagus to make an artificial lower esophageal sphincter. All of this surgery can be done through an incision in the abdomen (laparotomy) or using a technique called laparoscopy. During laparoscopy, a small viewing device and surgical instruments are passed through several small puncture sites in the abdomen. This procedure avoids the need for a major abdominal incision.The surgical procedure that is done to prevent reflux is technically known as fundoplication and is called reflux surgery or anti-reflux surgery. During fundoplication, any hiatal hernial sac is pulled below the diaphragm and stitched there. In addition, the opening in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes is tightened around the esophagus. Finally, the upper part of the stomach next to the opening of the esophagus into the stomach is wrapped around the lower esophagus to make an artificial lower esophageal sphincter. All of this surgery can be done through an incision in the abdomen (laparotomy) or using a technique called laparoscopy. During laparoscopy, a small viewing device and surgical instruments are passed through several small puncture sites in the abdomen. This procedure avoids the need for a major abdominal incision.

    Surgery is very effective at relieving symptoms and treating the complications of GERD. Approximately 80% of patients will have good or excellent relief of their symptoms for at least 5 to 10 years. Nevertheless, many patients who have had surgery will continue to take drugs for reflux. It is not clear whether they take the drugs because they continue to have reflux and symptoms of reflux or if they take them for symptoms that are being caused by problems other than GERD. The most common complication of fundoplication is swallowed food that sticks at the artificial sphincter. Fortunately, the sticking usually is temporary. If it is not transient, endoscopic treatment to stretch (dilate) the artificial sphincter usually will relieve the problem. Only occasionally is it necessary to re-operate to revise the prior surgery.

    Endoscopy

    Very recently, endoscopic techniques for the treatment of GERD have been developed and tested. One type of endoscopic treatment involves suturing (stitching) the area of the lower esophageal sphincter, which essentially tightens the sphincter.

    A second type involves the application of radio-frequency waves to the lower part of the esophagus just above the sphincter. The waves cause damage to the tissue beneath the esophageal lining and a scar (fibrosis) forms. The scar shrinks and pulls on the surrounding tissue, thereby tightening the sphincter and the area above it.

    A third type of endoscopic treatment involves the injection of materials into the esophageal wall in the area of the LES. The injected material is intended to increase pressure in the LES and thereby prevent reflux. In one treatment the injected material was a polymer. Unfortunately, the injection of polymer led to serious complications, and the material for injection is no longer available. Another treatment involving injection of expandable pellets also was discontinued. Limited information is available about a third type of injection which uses gelatinous polymethylmethacrylate microspheres.

    Endoscopic treatment has the advantage of not requiring surgery. It can be performed without hospitalization. Experience with endoscopic techniques is limited. It is not clear how effective they are, especially long-term. Because the effectiveness and the full extent of potential complications of endoscopic techniques are not clear, it is felt generally that endoscopic treatment should only be done as part of experimental trials.

    Prevention of transient LES relaxation

    Transient LES relaxations appear to be the most common way in which acid reflux occurs. Although there is an available drug that prevents relaxations (baclofen), it has side effects that are too frequent to be generally useful. Much attention is being directed at the development of drugs that prevent these relaxations without accompanying side effects.

    Acid Reflux During The Flu GERD Diet (🔴 Natural Remedies For) | Acid Reflux During The Flu 10 Foods To Eathow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for What is a reasonable approach to the management of GERD (acid reflux)?

    There are several ways to the 1 last update 2020/03/29 approach the evaluation and management of GERD. The approach depends primarily on the frequency and severity of symptoms, the adequacy of the response to treatment, and the presence of complications.There are several ways to approach the evaluation and management of GERD. The approach depends primarily on the frequency and severity of symptoms, the adequacy of the response to treatment, and the presence of complications.

    For infrequent heartburn, the most common symptom of GERD, life-style changes and an occasional antacid may be all that is necessary. If heartburn is frequent, daily non-prescription-strength (over-the-counter) H2 antagonists may be adequate. A foam barrier also can be used with the antacid or H2 antagonist.

    If life-style changes and antacids, non-prescription H2 antagonists, and a foam barrier do not adequately relieve heartburn, it is time to see a physician for further evaluation and to consider prescription-strength drugs. The evaluation by the physician should include an assessment for possible complications of GERD based on the presence of such symptoms or findings as:

    Clues to the presence of diseases that may mimic GERD, such as gastric or duodenal ulcers and esophageal motility disorders, should be sought.

    If there are no symptoms or signs of complications and no suspicion of other diseases, a therapeutic trial of acid suppression with H2 antagonists often is used. If H2 antagonists are not adequately effective, a second trial, with the more potent PPIs, can be given. Sometimes, a trial of treatment begins with a PPI and skips the H2 antagonist. If treatment relieves the symptoms completely, no further evaluation may be necessary and the effective drug, the H2 antagonist or PPI, is continued. As discussed previously, however, there are potential problems with this commonly used approach, and some physicians would recommend a further evaluation for almost all patients they see.

    If at the time of evaluation, there are symptoms or signs that suggest complicated GERD or a disease other than GERD or if the relief of symptoms with H2 antagonists or PPIs is not satisfactory, a further evaluation by endoscopy (EGD) definitely should be done.

    There are several possible results of endoscopy and each requires a different approach to for 1 last update 2020/03/29 treatment. If the esophagus is normal and no other diseases are found, the goal of treatment simply is to relieve symptoms. Therefore, prescription strength H2 antagonists or PPIs are appropriate. If damage to the esophagus (esophagitis or ulceration) is found, the goal of treatment is healing the damage. In this case, PPIs are preferred over H2 antagonists because they are more effective for healing.There are several possible results of endoscopy and each requires a different approach to treatment. If the esophagus is normal and no other diseases are found, the goal of treatment simply is to relieve symptoms. Therefore, prescription strength H2 antagonists or PPIs are appropriate. If damage to the esophagus (esophagitis or ulceration) is found, the goal of treatment is healing the damage. In this case, PPIs are preferred over H2 antagonists because they are more effective for healing.

    If complications of GERD, such as stricture or Barrett''s esophagus, periodic endoscopic examination should be done to identify pre-malignant changes in the esophagus.

    If symptoms of GERD do not respond to maximum doses of PPI, there are two options for management. The first is to perform 24-hour pH testing to determine whether the PPI is ineffective or if a disease other than GERD is likely to be present. If the PPI is ineffective, a higher dose of PPI may be tried. The second option is to go ahead without 24 hour pH testing and to increase the dose of PPI. Another alternative is to add another drug to the PPI that works in a way that is different from the PPI, for example, a pro-motility drug or a foam barrier. If necessary, all three types of drugs can be used. If there is not a satisfactory response to this maximal treatment, 24 hour pH testing should be done.

    Who should consider surgery or, perhaps, an endoscopic treatment trial for GERD? (As mentioned previously, the effectiveness of the recently developed endoscopic treatments remains to be determined.) Patients should consider surgery if they have regurgitation that cannot be controlled with drugs. This recommendation is particularly important if the regurgitation results in infections in the lungs or occurs at night when aspiration into the lungs is more likely. Patients also should consider surgery if they require large doses of PPI or multiple drugs to control their reflux. It is debated whether or not a desire to be free of the need to take life-long drugs to prevent symptoms of GERD is by itself a satisfactory reason for having surgery.

    Some physicians - primarily surgeons - recommend that all patients with Barrett''s family history and results from lung function tests and other exams. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators (LABAs) are used in the treatment of asthma. Generally, the prognosis for a patient with asthma is good. Exposure to allergens found on farms may protect against asthma symptoms.

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  • Endoscopy

    Endoscopy is a broad term used to described examining the inside of the body using an lighted, flexible instrument called an endoscope. Endoscopy procedure is performed on a patient to examine the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum; and look for causes of symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, or intestinal bleeding.

  • Esophageal Cancer

    Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the esophagus. Risk factors of cancer of the esophagus include smoking, heavy alcohol use, Barrett''re at risk, and what you can do about it.
  • Laparoscopy

    A laparoscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that is used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Surgery is performed through three or more 5 to 10 mm incisions in the abdomen. A blood test, lung function test, ECG, chest X-ray, and other tests may be performed prior to surgery.
  • Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

    Connective tissue diseases are disorders featuring abnormalities involving the collagen and elastin. Connective tissue diseases that are strictly inheritable include Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. The classic immune-related connective tissue diseases include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis. Treatment is often directed at suppressing the inflammation present in the tissues by using anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive medications.
  • Peptic Ulcer

    Peptic or stomach ulcers are ulcers are an ulcer in the lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. Ulcer formation is related to H. pylori bacteria in the stomach, use of anti-inflammatory medications, and cigarette smoking. Symptoms of peptic or stomach ulcers include abdominal burning or hunger pain, indigestion, and abdominal discomfort after meals.

    Treatment for stomach ulcers depends upon the for 1 last update 2020/03/29 cause.Treatment for stomach ulcers depends upon the cause.

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    Reflux laryngitis is caused by acid refluxing back up through the esophagus and voice box. Reflux laryngitis causes irritation and inflammation of the lining of the esophagus, larynx, and throat; and can lead to symptoms, signs, and other problems like esophagitis, sinusitis, strictures, throat clearing, swallowing problems, asthma, chronic cough, and growths on the vocal cords. Typical symptoms of reflux laryngitis include heartburn, hoarseness, or a sensation of a foreign body in the throat.

    Acid Reflux During The Flu Heartburn Treatments (🔴 To Avoid) | Acid Reflux During The Flu Home Remedies Forhow to Acid Reflux During The Flu for Reflux laryngitis can be treated with diet chanes, OTC medication, prescription medication, and lifestyle changes.

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